Mr Hongwei Jiang [HREF1], School of Aerospace, Mechanical, and Manufacture Engineering [HREF2] , GPO Box 2476V, RMIT University [HREF3], Victoria, 3001, Australia.firstname.lastname@example.org
The objective of this paper is using system engineering methodology to develop and implement e-CRM strategy for airline industry to create better customer relationship.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management), sometimes it is called customer management, customer value management, customer centricity, and customer-centric management. CRM has long been the buzzword for airlines aspiring to 'one-to-one' relationships with all customers, all of the time. Its underlying principles are well established too - those airlines that can effectively attract, serve and retain the best customers will see significant positive effects on their bottom line profitability. The deeper the relationship the airline holds with these customers, the more opportunities there will be for selling additional products and services. However, with the emergence of e-business and the 'new economy', the challenges of building strong customer relationships have become even greater.
The need to attract, acquire, leverage, and retain customers is still of primary concern to most businesses. Revenue growth through customer acquisition and retention remains a major requirement for competing successfully. Several studies document that the average company loses half its customers every 5 years and that it costs five to ten times as much to obtain a new customer as to keep an existing one (Kalakota et al, 2001).
Over the last few years numerous airlines have felt the chilling effects of increased 'customer power', as greater customer choice and lower barriers to defection have turned keeping customers into a battle that must be fought anew each day. Customer relationships are the key to airline business growth. Airlines must take absolute responsibility for a customer's satisfaction throughout the "want-it-buy-it-and-use-it" experience. This requires learning and tracking customers' needs, behaviors, and lifestyles and using this information to create a specific value proposition. This strategy is the path to consumer loyalty.
Within turbulent, highly competitive marketplace, airlines are finding it increasingly important to respond both quickly and effectively to changing patterns of customer demand. Who are airlines' customers and what are their needs and aspirations? If airlines don't know the profitability by customer, how can airlines be sure airlines are serving their best customers and applying their value to all business decision? If airlines had the means to do both, profits would soar. Not only would airlines become more efficient, the shareholders would see an investment in their only real source of revenue, the customer, and the meaningful profits that result. With so few new revenue opportunities, do airlines need more aircraft? Or instead should airlines consider a customer relationship management program that uncovers and maintains shareholder value. Airlines need to know and understand those customers who contribute the most to their bottom line.
Airlines in today's global marketplace are faced with increased competition and shirking profit margins. The challenge is sustaining and creating profits in the face of heavier competition and product homogenisation. The opportunities are in managing customer relationships, controlling costs and applying customer profitability to the entire business [HREF4].
This paper begins to define customer, CRM and e-CRM; then identify the drivers for airline to adapt e-CRM strategy and its benefits to airlines; followed by the researcher's e-CRM business model for airline industry and discussion of "why and how" CRM ; finally, the researcher addresses some issues of appliction e-CRM and draw a conclusion.
Imhoff defines customer as: "A party who is involved with the acquisition of the companies' goods and services and who is of interest to the organization." (Imhoff et al, 2001)
In this definition, customers can be either individuals or organizations. Customers can also be loose group of individuals joined together as a membership organization, such as the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) in UK.
They also list some customer types according to their definition, such as:
This definition is too broad, in this paper; customer is defined airline passenger only.
First of all, it must be understood that at its core, CRM is more than just a set of technologies: it is a process. This fact will be of significant importance to Information Technology (IT) professionals who will be asked to support CRM with information and applications. Furthermore, it is intended to be a repeatable process to ensure ongoing, continually improving, and consistent results. Simply stated, CRM comprises the acquisition and deployment of knowledge about customers to enable a airline to sell more of their product and service more efficiently (Flanagan and Sadie,1998).
Providing customers with a good experience however and whenever they choose to contact you is a key part of managing relationships with them. Ovum defines customer relationship management (or CRM) as:
A management approach that enables organisations to identify, attract and increase retention of profitable customers, by managing relationships with them. (Bradshaw, 2000).
This definition deliberately makes no mention of any particular means of communication, or channels, whether 'traditional' (mail, telephone, in person) or new (email, Web, wireless devices, interactive television). It also makes no mention of process management technology; while implementing CRM is certain to involve the deployment of new technologies, it requires a re-examination of business processes, which should lead technology decisions, and not vice versa. The principles of CRM apply equally, regardless of the channel to the customer. However, the first wave of CRM, which came to prominence in 1998, centred on 'traditional' channels - supporting front-office personnel communicating mainly by telephone, but also by fax and mail, as well as field personnel. Figure 1 illustrate the Key Elements of CRM Architecture.
Figure 1: Key Elements of CRM Architecture (Source: META Group)
Today, more and more airlines are using the Internet to implement e-business applications and CRM strategy. These applications can be very resource intensive. e-CRM is interest intensified in managing customer relationship through the Internet, and many airlines approached this as a separate project to their e-business strategy.
What differentiates airlines in today's hyper-competitive and demand-driven markets is their ability to address their customers' preferences and priorities. This means more than simply knowing and understanding their customers better than their competitors do. It means strategically implementing this customer knowledge in every area of the airline, from the highest management level to all the employees who come into direct contact with customers.
Establishing and strengthening long-term relationships with airline's customers is the key to success. It's the focus of a well-structured and coordinated process of customer relationship management.
e-CRM involves far more than automating processes in sales, marketing, and
service and then increasing the efficiency of these processes. It involves conducting
interactions with customers on a more informed basis and individually tailoring
them to customers' needs.
There are three primary reasons why CRM has taken hold as rapidly as it has:
1. Competition is fierce;
2. The economics of customer retention are unequivocal;
3. Technology allows airlines to do this more effectively and profitably today.
There are only three ways to increase the profitability of a customer base; acquire more customers, optimize the value of existing customers, or retain the right customers longer. All of these benefits must be achieved with lower costs.
As the economic climate continues to become more competitive, the fight over
customers intensifies. Of the three choices above, acquiring new customers is
the most expensive. Research shows that acquiring a new customer costs 5 to
10 times more than retaining an existing one. Studies also show that loyal customers
will buy more over their lifetime and are willing to pay a premium for doing
business with someone they like and trust. Therefore, while organisations will
clearly continue looking for new customers, once acquired, they now know that
it is worth a significant investment to keep them. CRM is a way to do that.
A vexing question for a number of airlines is how much value does customer relationship management, or CRM, really deliver to the bottom line and how does an airline go about getting it? While this question remains unanswered, many skeptical senior managers will continue to pay lip service the strategic importance of a customer-centric perspective and will continue with business as usual. Applied Technologies Group's investigation of 17 world-class airlines has clear indicated that significant revenue improvements of n 0.9 and 2.4% are achievable (see Figure 2) (Binggeli et al, 2002).
Figure 2: Benefits of a CRM Strategy (source: Binggeli et al, 2002)
This revenue increase comes from three areas:
Naturally, associated with these revenues are costs, but these only amount to between 0.3 and 0.6% of the existing cost base:
Savings in costs due to more efficient and targeted running of the existing CRM program, providing a reduction of 0.1 to 0.3% of costs;
As stated above, the bottom line impact of CRM is significant, but varies according to the airline implementing the initiatives. The range estimates are:
There are many benefits to be gained for airlines and airline passengers, firstly, passengers could book and check in through internet 24 hours, 7 days a week, at any time, any where. Secondly, airlines could reduce sales cost. American Southwest Airlines CEO, Gary Kelly said the Web site is playing a major role in mitigating the rise in unit costs affected by high fuel prices. It's 10 times cheaper to deliver to customers through the online service than through a travel agent, Kelly said, and costs 5 times less than using Southwest's own reservation staff. The booking cost per passenger online is "well under $1," said Kelly, and is scaling down even further. He said Internet use by passengers was helping the carrier keep fares at low discount levels. (Aviation Week & Space Technology/March 6, 2000, p38).
Massive investment in both business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-customer
(B2C) information systems is expected to translate into important cost savings
in procurement, sales, billing and other support activities. The airline's fully
automatic ordering system, for example, should reduce order processing costs
by 90%, according to Chairman/CEO Juergen Weber of Lufthansa Aviation Group.
(Aviation Week & Space Technology/May 15, 2000, p40).
Customers enjoy personal treatment, together with appropriate advice on getting the best out of their purchases. The airline may also put customers in touch with others with whom they have similarities, for example by inviting them to meetings.
For the airlines implementing CRM, it becomes possible to single out customers who are profitable, gaining an understanding of their preferences to improve retention and increase the volumes sold. These valuable customers can become advocates for the airline and its products. Finally, CRM helps an airline to build loyalty. Because it is a marketing truism that it costs five times more to generate new customers than it does to retain existing ones, that is a compelling argument [HREF6].
With e-CRM, airlines can increase sales and customer loyalty. This strategy can improve sales effectiveness, bring higher value to all of airline's key business relationships, help airline to understand what each client relationship is truly worth, develop and reinforce a consistent experience for customers, improve management effectiveness, improve tactical and strategic planning, respond faster to competitive challenges, use critical resources more efficiently, and reduce administrative burdens and overall cost.
e-CRM is a business strategy that should guide airlines to increased profitability by creating customer loyalty. In order to implement a true e-CRM strategy, airlines must have a vision and look at CRM as one holistic project - whether implemented all at once, or through a phased approach.
First, an airline must commit to focus on the customer and create a complete vision that fosters a true customer-centric organisation. Once a clear vision is in place, developing a strategy and establishing goals are the next steps toward effectively deploying e-CRM. The entire plan must align the airline's strategy, goals, and technology in order to achieve the objectives of the e-CRM project.
Airlines that make strategic e-CRM investments and align processes, strategies, and technology around customers are in a better position to deliver a seamless, high-quality customer experience across all channels. (Prete, 2001)
As customers become more sophisticated, expecting faster, more reliable service around-the-clock, it's no secret that giving them the power to help themselves is key in providing the availability and personalized service they demand. The Web is the perfect medium to find information quickly and securely-anytime. Start simple by letting customers use airline's website as a way to find out travel information. Book tickets on line; use e-tickets; Check-in through Internet by themselves; check cargo delivery status. Find answers by putting frequently asked questions (FAQs) online. In addition, chat room and personalized Site on the Internet provide airline better customer service, attract new customers and increases customers' loyalty.
When airlines give their customers self-service solutions, not only are airlines managing relationships with them, airlines are giving customers the tools to manage their relationships with airlines. As airlines offer this ability to their customers, the Web provides airline with a cost-effective way to get valuable insight about them-allowing airlines to target individual customers with specific, relevant marketing information.
There are three basic steps involved in establishing effective customer relationship
management using the Web:
Customers like to be recognized by name, and customized marketing increases
the likelihood they'll buy from airline again. Capturing services purchases
and related demographics helps airline build accurate and timely profiles about
Building a database from existing systems and information airline capture is key in its efforts to focus marketing resources on customers who are ready to buy. When customers look for a specific item, they don't want to wade through a mountain of irrelevant data-they want it now. Getting the right information quickly and easily is a reason for them to do business with an airline versus the competition.
The essence of customer relationship management is to make every interaction with customer count. Using the Web to communicate through methods like e-mail and customized views of airline's Web site is an inexpensive way to build targeted campaigns with a limited amount of resources.
Airline's success depends heavily on its ability to intelligently manage sales, marketing, and service processes and to draw mutual advantages from understanding of airline's customers. To help airline maximise the strategic value of customer centric initiatives, Airline e-CRM model provides a comprehensive analytical solution, it can contribute toward improving the way that measure and optimize airline's relationships with customers. Figure 3 best illustrates Airline e-CRM model using system engineering methodology.
Figure 3 Airline e-CRM system model
Airline e-CRM model can be conceptualized as a system that is made up of components, linkages amongst the components, and dynamics-that takes advantage of the properties of the Internet to make money. It takes advantage of the properties of the Internet in the way it builds each of the components-value, scope, revenue sources, pricing, connected activities, implementation, capabilities and sustainability-and crafts the linkages among these components. It is what, preferably, enables an airline to have a sustainable competitive advantage. It includes three components (subsystem): Web Basec Airline-Passenger Interaction subsystem; Airline Data Warehouse subsystem; and Airline e-CRM operation subsystem.
Airline e-CRM model is an asset-based solution that includes best-of-breed components to build an e-CRM infrastructure and enable any-channel, any-time communication with customers. At the heart of this offering is the CRM Foundation, which includes the CRM data model, starter set of CRM queries, reports and analysis, sample data, a demonstration prototype, data utilities and scripts, and comprehensive documentation that covers implementation guidelines, business perspective and analysis guidelines, system components, data model descriptions, and use and customization guidelines.
Since managing customer interactions is a vital piece of the e-CRM puzzle, planning and implementing a Multi-Channel Interaction Management solution with the other subsystems and enterprise solutions is crucial. Without Interaction Management, the puzzle remains incomplete. Interaction Management is the foundation for evolving customer service into customer satisfaction by tying together all customer data - no matter where it is located within the enterprise. Making this information easily and quickly accessible to the customer management process, and ensuring each customer is handled in the most efficient and effective way possible, is the ultimate result of a well-defined and deployed strategy and solution.
Airline e-CRM model also:
Significance derived from airline-CRM implementation will allow for new e-business
model, based on the wide availability of information and its direct distribution
If the issues around e-CRM are so well understood by airlines, why do so many senior executives lose sleep over the level of customer churn? And why are so many disappointed that despite significant investment in customer-centric solutions, the benefits envisaged are just not being delivered?
It should be born mind, not everybody use Internet. For now, adults ages 25 to 44 comprise the bulk of that base and are most likely to access the Internet and buy online. Specialized markets, including children, teens, young adults, baby boomers, and seniors are rising fast (Korper, 2001).
Korper (2001) lists Top ten reasons teens go online:
It can be seen from these ten reasons, Internet Booking Air Tickets is not
on the top reasons.
e-CRM suites fulfill an important need-to provide a consistent experience in electronic channel the customer uses; and to track and understand customer preferences to drive better business decisions.
The problem is that e-CRM suites alone can't provide a complete view of the customer. A common error is underestimating the degree to which every facet of the enterprise needs to be involved in the process and integrated into the customer relationship. As Gartner Group reports, "CRM involves front- and back-office business processes that require accurate and easily accessible data. Access to poorly integrated front- and backoffice processes and a lack of quality in the underlying data within foundation applications will lead to ineffective customer service and a resulting erosion of customer loyalty." (Garter Group report)
This can be seen by examining the cycle of an imaginary airlines that goes through selling a product, from pre-sale, to sale, through product deployment and post-sale service and sales opportunities. The table above shows typical customer-facing business processes that occur during the cycle, the role of CRM and where these processes intersect with the company's functional IT systems data stores.
Clearly, CRM applications in sales, marketing and technique support play a
key role in supporting the entire cycle, as do back-office systems and data
warehouses. However, if such systems exist in isolation, the cross-functional
information sharing, integration and business intelligence to optimize the customer
experience cannot occur. What's needed is a concept that integrates all of a
company's systems around a logical architecture [HREF8].
This then is the Brave New World for businesses to understand and adapt to, complacency cannot be an option. Already the signs are well advanced that companies are taking this area very seriously indeed. In a business world that has already seen conventional logic turned on its head in the context of the huge fluctuations in dot com valuations, airlines must adapt and use the pace of the Internet to fight for their future survival. That means finding the right technology and using it to better airline's business - in terms of increasing the speed and improving the efficiency of airline entire spectrum of customer interactions.
To summarise, airlines realise that an integrated e-CRM strategy will allow them to manage customer and supplier relationships more effectively than ever before, allowing them to build long-term customer relationships, brand loyalty and repeat sales that result in increased, sustained profitability. The challenge is how to overcome hurdles, minimise the risk and guarantee results. Rather than seeking all the answers before making an effective start in eBusiness, companies should first define a clear roadmap of their objectives, implement and measure the success of a pilot project, and build from there. The greatest danger is allowing the pace at which the market and technologies are changing to delay the opportunity that is eBusiness.
The end result is a better bottom line-successful e-CRM can mean millions of
dollars in incremental revenue from increased customer retention, greater revenue
per customer, the ability to cross-sell and up-sell customers, better customer
loyalty and greater customer satisfaction. That is the true potential of an
IT infrastructure built around enterprise storage-something every company needs
to consider as a means to gain competitive advantage in both the old and the
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Bradshaw, D. and Brash. C. (2000). Surviving in the e-Business world How to personalise customer relationships for increased profitability.
"E-commerce, Alliances spark Lufthansa Uptern", (2000) Aviation Week & Space Technology, May 15, p40.
Flanagan, T and Sadie, E. (1998). Building a Successful CRM Environment. Applied Technologies Group Whitepaper. Available online [HREF5].
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Imhoff, C., Loftis, L., Geiger, G.J., and Inmon, W.H. (2001). Building the Customer-Centric Enterprise Data Warehousing Techniques for Supporting Customer Relationship Management, Wiley Computer Publishing, New York.
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Korper, S., Ellis, J. (2001), E-Commerce Book Building the E-Empire,
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"Online Ticket Sales Soaring at Southwest", (2000). Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 6, p38.
Fusing technology with business strategy (n.d.). Available online [HREF6]
META Group, To CRM and Beyond, Research Note ADS 805.
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Customer Relationship Management Success: Enterprise Storage. Available